Heft 15, 3-4 (2022) von EJM erschienen
Band 15, 3-4 (2022) von EJM ist erschinenen. Er enthält vier wissenschaftliche Beiträge, zwei Chronik-Artikel und vier Rezensionen.
Language transmission coming to a halt after a 500-year survival story: the case of Arberesh in Italy
page 215 - 240
This research in 2022 was preceded by debates regarding the endangerment of Arberesh. Knowledge and evidence from research have been scarce and far from comprehensive, and language endangerment is not an official issue on the agenda for the politicians, local official and the academia related to Arberesh studies; nor have been any efforts for developing language policies. The data from our field trip in June 2022 confirm an almost complete language shift within the present community and the worrying intragenerational transmission. The quantitative data about the language use have been co-evaluated with the qualitative information provided in interviews about the set of the present language endangerment factors in view of an estimate of Arberesh in 1-2 generations ’ time. This shift in transmission levels and patterns has had an impact in many directions, particularly onto the absolute number of the minority population and the proportion of real speakers. The question is whether the younger generation has been irreversibly impacted and the language has, for certain, stopped being transmitted to the younger generation in the main core of Arberesh communes.
Zur Situation der kroatischen Volksgruppe und ihrer Sprache in Österreich
Beitrag, page 241 - 260
This article presents an overview on the Croatian minority in Austria. Initially, the historic background is discussed, also including a cross-border perspective, as the ethnic group was divided by border drawing processes after 1921. Important legal frameworks and minority acts are discussed in a second part. Thereupon, special attention is paid to the codification of Burgenland Croatian, which developed as an autonomous local standard variety. It is based on a different dialect than the Croatian standard language and has been codified after decades of arguments on language policy among Croats in Burgenland. The article finally presents recent initiatives and attempts for a broader visibility of Burgenland Croatian and the Croatian minority in Austria in the public and virtual space.
Ungarn in der jugoslawischen Außenpolitik 1918–1941
Beitrag, page 261 - 292
This paper will analyze the role of Hungary in the Foreign Policy of the first Yugoslav state. The main focus in on political bilateral relations, which are analyzed from the perspective of the state interests of the two countries which were on opposite sides during the First World War. We shall address the issues of how statesmen and military circles in Belgrade viewed the Hungarian foreign and domestic policy (particularly the question of the Habsburg restoration and its repercussion on the integrity of Yugoslavia, and irredentism and the role of minority in this aspect), and what concepts they pursued towards Budapest. An Important part of this analysis will be the role of economic contacts and projects in surmounting the political obstacles and crises. Bilateral political relations are analyzed through multilateral components, i. e. relations with the Great Powers, Yugoslavia ’s allies from the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia and Romania) and activities before the League of Nations.
Die Lage der ungarischen und südslawischen nationalen Minderheiten in Jugoslawien und in Ungarn 1918–1948
Beitrag, page 293 - 322
The article aims to illustrate the situation of the Hungarian minority in Yugoslavia as well as the situation of the South Slavic (Yugoslav) minorities in Hungary from 1918 to 1948. This will be illustrated by the fatal consequences of the Paris Peace Treaties of 1919/1920. Despite some positive and sometimes even well-intentioned or open-ended approaches in interstate relations, they did not lead to positive results. This also applies to the situation of the Hungarian and South Slavic minorities in the two states in focus here and in the respective majority societies. The term “lack of trust ” can be used here symbolically for all interstate relations on the political level and on the level of the minority issues. The Paris Peace Treaties after World War I can be identified as the main reason for this fundamental lack of trust.
Das Schicksal der Donauschwaben in Südosteuropa mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der deutschen Minderheit in Jugoslawien nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Versuch eines Überblicks
Chronik, page 323 - 358
The 18th century in Europe can be understood as a period of frequent and substantial German emigrations. The Austrian-Hungarian and the Russian Empire looked for colonists to increase fairly unpopulated areas of their realms. Young and enterprising people from the South-West of the then existing Holy Roman Empire were attracted and used the opportunity to emigrate to fairly empty regions of the Kingdom of Hungaria, among different ethnic groups. Over the centuries, they increased in number and in prosperity. Since then peoples, states and nations of that part of Europe underwent considerable changes in extension and political structure, and the German minorities, with them the later so-called Danube Swabian population, were separated several times and added to various national states with their majorities, so that the ethnic Germans had to struggle for their ethnic heritage among different national languages and political creeds. Finally, the Second World War with the strong influence of the German National Socialists and ultimately, the total change of the Southeastern European countries to communism brought expropriation, execution, deportation, internment, torture, starvation. The highest death rate was among the German minority in Yugoslavia, especially among the Danube Swabians. After these historical reports, this essay focuses on the various historical perspectives of the history of the Danube Swabian group after WWII and develops the view of the author as a historian and witness of the times of the 1940es in Yugoslavia and Serbia.
Die Sprachinsel Gottschee/Kočevje in Slowenien: die Gottscheer Sprachgemeinschaft einst und jetzt
Chronik, page 359 - 380
Gottschee/Kočevje is a former German-speaking region in Lower Carniola, a crownland of the Habsburg Empire, now in Slovenia. It was colonized by the Carinthian counts of Ortenburg in the 14th century with settlers from Carinthia and Tyrol. The original German settlers were speaking a Bavarian dialect that was influenced during the centuries by Slovenian dialects. The ethnolinguistic enclave is of special interest in terms of its size and population, its changing political affiliations, its resettlement in 1941/1942 in a nearby area of Slovenian settlers. At the end of the war, the Gottscheers were forced to flee to Austria. Some of the refugees eventually found new homes in Austria and Germany, however, most immigrated to the United States and Canada, where they had friends and relatives who had immigrated to those countries prior to World War II. Gottscheers have a special reference to their home in Gottschee. This paper attempts to give a rough overview of the current state of research on the history and fate of the Gottscheers and try to address the Gottscheer understanding of their history, the concept of “home-Heimat ” and “being Gottscheer ” among the descendants of the Gottscheers in the Gottschee and in the diaspora.
Pálffy, Géza: Hungary between Two Empires 1526–1711.
Rezension, page 381 - 385
Horváth, Franz Sz.
Pop, Ioan-Aurel/Bolovan, Ioan: Geschichte Siebenbürgens.
Rezension, page 386 - 392
Bayerische Landeszentrale für politische Bildungsarbeit (Hrsg.): Einsichten und Perspektiven. Themenheft 1/21: Flucht und Vertreibung.
Rezension, page 393 - 398
Röger, Maren/Weidle, Alexander (Hrsg.): Bukowina-Deutsche – Erfindungen, Erfahrungen und Erzählungen einer (imaginierten) Gemeinschaft seit 1775.
Rezension, page 399 - 402