Heft 16, 1-2 (2023) von EJM erschienen
Band 16, 1-2 (2023) von EJM ist erschinenen. Er enthält fünf wissenschaftliche Beiträge, zwei Chronik-Artikel und sieben Rezensionen: biblioscout.net/journal/ejm/16/1-2
Einige Überlegungen zum Wert von Sprachkenntnissen und sprachlicher Vielfalt
Beitrag, page 6 - 20
This essay gives an overview of the value of language skills and linguistic diversity to society, to members of linguistic minorities and to the individual in general. It will be stressed that language has several functions; it is an important carrier of culture as well as personal and group identity, but also, of course, functions as a means of communication. First, the intrinsic value of respecting the rights of minorities for the stability of a country are discussed, as well as the value of belonging to a (high-status) minority. It will be argued that the whole society profits from relevant language skills in the areas of trade and migration. The value to individuals of mastering foreign languages is ventilated with focus on education and on the labour market. Finally, some implications for a sensible language policy are drawn, both with respect to the treatment of linguistic minorities and the use of acquisition planning in the European Union.
Die autochthone Bevölkerung im Nordkaukasus und ihre Einbeziehung in die deutsche Kriegsführung 1942–1943
Beitrag, page 21 - 48
The North Caucasian region was repeatedly shaped by large movements of people and immigration, but also is the result of being a part of Persia, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. In the 19th century, as a result of the Russian conquest, the ethnic structure was permanently changed by expulsions and deportations or by the settlement of new population groups (e. g. Germans, Russians or Cossacks). After the First World War, the Caucasus was incorporated into the USSR. During the Stalinist era, the new Soviet power repressively fought against old traditions and social structures. Finally, the expansion of the German-Soviet War to the North Caucasus marked another turning point. The old Jewish culture was largely destroyed under the brief German occupation. A short time later, the Stalinist Soviet power carried out forced deportations of entire populations.
Im Angesicht neuer Kriege im Kaukasus: Die Osseten zwischen Selbstbehauptung und Unterwerfung
Beitrag, page 49 - 68
In the shadow of Russia’s war against Ukraine, several interlocking wars, civil wars and waves of terror threaten to break out in the entire Caucasus, especially in the event of a sustained weakening of Russia. The main reason for this is the unscrupulous policy of the Kremlin, which plays off regional elites and real or potential violent actors against each other and has not attempted to settle any of the open national-political questions in the last two decades. However, regional rulers who support this policy out of self-interest are also responsible, as the example of the history of the Ossetians since 1989 clearly shows. Should there really be a power vacuum in the Caucasus in the near future, a major war between Azerbaijan and Armenia, perhaps with the direct participation of Turkey, is to be expected, whereby it is no longer just about the affiliation of Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh, but about the fundamental existence of Armenia, which is currently being questioned by significant sections of the young generation in Azerbaijan. Georgia would have the opportunity to attack the separatist republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia-Alania. If successful, mass exodus and ethnic cleansing of Ossetians and Abkhazians would be almost inevitable. The knowledge of this very narrowly limited room for manoeuvre, and the threats that could quickly develop into elementary struggles for existence for large parts of the Ossetian nation, continues to significantly promote their basic attitude “Without Russia’s umbrella there is no future, only violence and war”. The article gives an overview of the most important aspects of the history and current situation of the Ossetian people. Of course, as always, the future remains fundamentally open but it hardly holds any positive realistic variable for the Ossetians in addition to many other Caucasians.
Die Bulgaren und Gagausen in Bessarabien. Historische und ethnographische Betrachtungen
Beitrag, page 69 - 92
This article deals with the Bulgarians and Gagauz in Bessarabia. The situation of both minorities - like that of all other minorities in Ukraine - is marked by the caesura represented by the date of 24 February 2022, which divides their situation into a time “before” and a time “after” the war. From an ethnographic point of view, the question suggests itself: How does the war as a catastrophe and crisis affect people’s lives, their festive and religious life, their spirituality, their personal and communal behaviour, their linguistic communication, etc.? The answers to these questions are, of course, yet to come. However, through documentation and description, through interviews and surveys, analyses and interpretations, clues will be discovered.
Pfeil, Beate Sibylle
Zur Rechtslage der nationalen Minderheiten in Deutschland
Beitrag, page 93 - 112
The article deals with the main features of the legal status of the four officially recognised national minorities in Germany. It can thus serve as a starting point for a comprehensive evaluation of the situation or the actual protection of the language and culture of the minorities in Germany. The article begins with a brief outline of Germany’s most important obligations under international law in the area of minority protection, from which criteria for the examination of the domestic legal status of minorities can be derived. These minority-relevant and minority-specific rights will then be presented in detail.
The Redefinition of the Hungarian Nation
Chronik, page 113 - 132
I use Hungary’s kinstate policy as a case study to examine kinstate policy, which engaged in nation building across borders and sought to redefine the nation following the collapse of communism. In 2010, the Hungarian party, Fidesz, received the parliamentary majority to begin nation building across borders and to institutionalize relations with the ethnic kin through dual citizenship and voting rights. The Hungarian parliament adopted a new constitution declaring that there is one Hungarian nation, which includes Hungarians abroad, and that the Hungarian state is responsible for their well-being. The nation was redefined along the ethno-cultural concept of the nation. The new kinstate policy responded to the failure of previous strategies to stop the rapid population decline of Hungarian national minorities, to help them achieve their basic aspirations such as collective rights and a form of autonomy in the region where they live. Ethnic Hungarian elites will have to balance between the conflicting strategies of the kinstate and the residential state as they seek to formulate claims to maintain their distinct cultural communities.
Schmidt, Hatto; Pitscheider, Lukas
Auf den Spuren einer verlöschenden altösterreichischen Gemeinschaft in Transkarpatien
Chronik, page 133 - 138
The documentary film “The Last Austrians” (trailer: www.thelastaustrians-film.com) by Lukas Pitscheider, a Ladin filmmaker living in Vienna but originally from Urtijëi/St. Ulrich in Gröden (South Tyrol/Italy), shows the small village of Königsfeld/Ust-Tschorna in the middle of the Ukrainian Carpathians where the last descendants of an Austrian settler group live. They were called to work in the wooded area during the 18th century. Most of this old Austrian minority emigrated after the fall of the Iron Curtain. For the last remaining in the village, it is now a question of “stay or go?”. The film also raises the question of identity; after all, the traces of this minority could soon disappear altogether. Pitscheider’s film accompanies four protagonists and their families over a period of three years in their life decisions. The interview describes the film maker’s impressions.
Thomas Benedikter: 100 Jahre moderne Territorialautonomie – Autonomie weltweit. Hintergründe, Einschätzungen, Gespräche.
Rezension, page 139 - 140
Schmidt, Rainer F.: Kaiserdämmerung. Berlin, London, Paris, St. Petersburg und der Weg in den Untergang.
Rezension, page 141 - 143
Olt, Reinhard: Im Karpatenbogen. Ungarn und die Diaspora der Magyaren – Reportagen und Analysen.
Rezension, page 144 - 147
Philipp, Hannes/Stangl, Theresa/Wellner, Hohann (Hrsg.): Deutsch in der Ukraine. Geschichte, Gegenwart und zukünftige Potentiale.
Rezension, page 148 - 151
Sterbling, Anton: Das Banat, die Deutschen aus Rumänien und die rumäniendeutsche Literatur.
Rezension, page 152 - 158
Tarpai, József (Hrsg.): Kárpátalja magyar szemmel. Útikönyv. [Transkarpatien aus ungarischer Sicht. Ein Reisebuch].
Rezension, page 159 - 161
Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien (Hrsg.): Die deutschen Sprachinseln im Aufblühen. Sprachinselkomitee 2011–2021.
Rezension, page 162 - 163